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MASSACRE AT MATHUIlX,  1757 A.B.                                    39
by name Khema, The matrimonial alliances which he contracted indicate his
inferiority to the Rajput princes of tlie adjoining territories, for oae of his wives
was a Kunnin, another a Malin, and the remainder of Ms own caste, Jatnis.
Yet, even at the commencement of his rule, he had achieved a conspicuous
position, since, in 1748, we find him accepting the invitation of the Emperor
Ahmad Shah to join with Holkar, under the general command of the Vazir,
Safdar Jang, in suppressing the revolt of the Rohillas. In the subsequent dis-
pute that arose between Safdar Jang and Ghazi-ud-din, the grandson of the
old Nizam, the former fell into open rebellion and called in the assistance of
the Jits, while his rival had recourse to the Mahrattas. Safdar, seeing the
coalit;'->n against him too strong, withdrew to his vice-royalty of Audh, leaving
Suraj Mall to hear alone the brunt of the battle. Bharat-pur was besieged,
but had not been invested many days when Ghazi-ud-din, suspecting a secret
understanding between his nominal allies, the Mahrattas and the Emperor, dis-
continued his operations against the Jats and returned hastily to Delhi, where
he deposed Ahmad Shah and raised Alamgir IL to the throne in his stead.
This was in 1754.
Three years later, when the army of Ahmad Shah Durani from Kan-
dahar appeared before Delhi, Ghazi-ud-din, by whose indiscretion the invasion
had been provoked, was admitted to pardon, in consideration of the heavy tri-
bute which he undertook to collect from the Doab, Sardar" Jahan Khan was
despatched on a like errand into the Jat territory ; but finding little to be
gained there, as the entire populace had withdrawn into their numerous petty
fortresses and his foraging parties were cut off by their sudden sallies, he fell
back upon the city of Mathura, which he not only plundered of all its wealth,
but further visited with a wholesale massacre of the inhabitants.
In the second invasion of the Durani, consequent upon the assassination
of the Emperor Alamgir II. in 1759, the infamous Ghazi-ud-din again
appeared at the gates of Bharat-pur ; this time not with a hostile army, but as a
suppliant for protection. By his unnatural persuasions a powerful Hindu
confederacy was formed to oppose the progress of the Muhammadan, but was
scattered for ever in the great battle of Panipat, in January, 1761, when the
dreams of Mahratta supremacy were finally dissolved. Suraj Mall, foreseeing
the inevitable result, withdrew his forces before the battle, and falling unex-
pectedly upou Agra, ejected from it the garrison of his late allies and adopted
it as his own favourite residence. Meanwhile, Shah Alam was- recognized by
the Durani as the rightful heir to the throne, but continued to hold Ms poor